Augusta Healthcare for Women
You can take good care of yourself and your diabetes by learning:
Making wise food choices can help you:
Healthy eating habits helps keep your blood glucose levels in your target range. Remaining physical activity and, if needed, diabetes medicines also help.
People with diabetes should strive to keep their blood glucose levels within a target range suggested by their doctor or health care provider.
The goal for many people with diabetes is to achieve a blood glucose level of 70 - 130 before meals and less than 180 one to two hours have meals.
Be sure to know what your personal blood glucose level goals are before and after meals.
My Target Blood Glucose Levels
My meal and snack times are:
For people taking certain diabetes medicines, following a schedule for meals, snacks, and physical activity is best. However some diabetes medicines allow for more flexibility. You’ll work with your health care team to create a diabetes plan that’s best for you.
Talk with your doctor or diabetes teacher about how many meals and snacks to eat each day. Fill in the times for your meals and snacks on these clocks.
Ask your doctor how often you should check your blood glucose on your own. Also ask your doctor for a hemoglogin A1C test at least twice a year. Your A1C number gives your average blood glucose for the past 3 months. The results from your blood glucose checks and your A1C test will tell you whether your diabetes care plan is working.
What you eat and when you eat affect how your diabetes medicines work. Talk with your doctor or diabetes teacher about when to take your diabetes medicines. Fill in the names of your diabetes medicines, when to take them, and how much to take. You can use a format like this one:
Name of medicine: _______________________________
Time: __________________ Meal: ___________________
How much: ______________________________________
What you eat and when also depend on how much you exercise. Physical activity is an important part of staying healthy and controlling your blood glucose. Keep these points in mind:
The diabetes food pyramid can help you make wise food choices. It divides foods into groups, based on what they contain. Eat more from the groups at the bottom of the pyramid, and less from the groups at the top. Foods from the starches, fruits, vegetables, and milk groups are highest in carbohydrate. They affect your blood glucose levels the most.
Choose this many servings from these food groups to have 1,200 to 1,600 calories a day:
Choose this many servings from these food groups to have 1,600 to 2,000 calories a day:
Choose this many servings from these food groups to have 2,000 to 2,400 calories a day:
Talk with your diabetes teacher about how to make a meal plan that fits the way you usually eat, your daily routine, and your diabetes medicines. Then make your own plan.
Each day I need:
Work with your diabetes teacher to make your own meal plan. Write down how many servings to have at your meals and snacks.
Starches are bread, grains, cereal, pasta, and starchy vegetables like corn and potatoes. They provide carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Whole grain starches are healthier because they have more vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
Eat some starches at each meal. Eating starches is healthy for everyone, including people with diabetes.
Examples of starches are bread, pasta, corn, pretzels, potatoes, rice, crackers, cereal, tortillas, beans, yams, and lentils.
If your plan includes more than one serving at a meal, you can choose different starches or have several servings of onestarch.
Vegetables provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber. They are low in carbohydrate.
Examples of vegetables are lettuce, broccoli, vegetable juice, spinach, peppers, carrots, green beans, tomatoes, celery, chilies, greens, cabbage.
If your plan includes more than one serving at a meal, you can choose several types of vegetables or have two or three servings of one vegetable.
Fruits provide carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
Examples of fruits include apples, fruit juice, strawberries, dried fruit, grapefruit, bananas, raisins, oranges, watermelon, peaches, mango, guava, papaya, berries, and canned fruit.
Milk provides carbohydrate, protein, calcium, vitamins, and minerals.
The meat and meat substitutes group includes meat, poultry, eggs, cheese, fish, and tofu. Eat small amounts of some of these foods each day.
Meat and meat substitutes provide protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Examples of meat and meat substitutes include chicken, beef, fish, canned tuna or other fish, eggs, peanut butter, tofu, cottage cheese, cheese, pork, lamb,and turkey.
Meat and meat substitutes are measured in ounces. Here are examples.
Limit the amount of fats and sweets you eat. Fats and sweets are not as nutritious as other foods. Fats have a lot of calories. Sweets can be high in carbohydrate and fat. Some contain saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol that increase your risk of heart disease. Limiting these foods will help you lose weight and keep your blood glucose and blood fats under control.
Examples of fats include salad dressing, oil, cream cheese, butter, margarine, mayonnaise, avocado, olives, and bacon.
Examples of sweets include cake, candy, ice cream, pie, syrup, cookies, and doughnuts.
Try having sugar-free popsicles, diet soda, fat-free ice cream or frozen yogurt, or sugar-free hot cocoa mix.
Remember, fat-free and low-sugar foods still have calories. Talk with your diabetes teacher about how to fit sweets into your meal plan.
Alcoholic drinks have calories but no nutrients. If you have alcoholic drinks on an empty stomach, they can make your blood glucose level go too low. Alcoholic drinks also can raise your blood fats. If you want to have alcoholic drinks, talk with your doctor or diabetes teacher about how much to have.
To make sure your food servings are the right size, you can use measuring cups, measuring spoons, a food scale, or you can use the guide below. Also, the Nutrition Facts label on food packages tells you how much of that food is in one serving.
This much is the same as 3 ounces, or 1 serving of meat, chicken, turkey, or fish.
This much is the same as 1 cup, or 1 serving of cooked vegetables, salads, casseroles or stews (such as chili with beans), or
This much is the same as ½ cup, or 1 serving of fruit or fruit juice, starchy vegetables (such as potatoes or corn), pinto beans and other dried beans, rice or noodles, or cereal.
This much is the same as 1 ounce, or 1 serving of snack food, such as a slice of cheese.
This much is the same as 1 tablespoon, or 1 serving of salad dressing or cream cheese.
This much is the same as 1 teaspoon, or 1 serving of margarine or butter, oil, or mayonnaise.
Take care of yourself when you’re sick. Being sick can make your blood glucose go too high. Tips on what to do include the following:
In people with type 1 diabetes, when blood glucose is high, the body produces ketones. Ketones can make you sick. Test your urine or blood for ketones if:
Reference: The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)