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How Immunizations Work

Immunizations

Immunizations (vaccines) prevent diseases can be dangerous, or even deadly. Vaccines reduce the risk of infection by helping the body to develop immunity to disease. This immunity allows the body's natural defenses to fight infections.

When germs, such as bacteria or viruses, invade the body, they attack and multiply. This invasion is called an infection, and the infection is what causes illness. The immune system then has to fight the infection. Once it fights off the infection, the body is left with a supply of cells that help recognize and fight that disease in the future.

Vaccines help develop immunity by imitating an infection, but this "imitation" infection does not cause illness. It does, however, cause the immune system to develop the same response as it does to a real infection so the body can recognize and fight the vaccine-preventable disease in the future. Sometimes, after getting a vaccine, the imitation infection can cause minor symptoms, such as fever. Such minor symptoms are normal and should be expected as the body builds immunity.


Reference: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention