Movement disorders are a type of neurological disorder that leads to an excess or reduction of voluntary and involuntary movement. They are due to a particular problem and not related to weakness or spasticity.
Movement disorders are conventionally divided into two major categories.
- Hyperkinetic movement disorders refer to dyskinesia, or excessive, often repetitive, involuntary movements that intrude upon the normal flow of motor activity
- hypokinetic movement disorders refer to akinesia (lack of movement), hypokinesia (reduced amplitude of movements), bradykinesia (slow movement) and rigidity.
In primary movement disorders, the abnormal movement is the primary symptom of the underlying disorder. In secondary movement disorders, the abnormal movement is a manifestation of another problem.
Treatment depends upon the underlying disorder.