Alzheimer's disease is complex, and it is unlikely that any one drug or other intervention can successfully treat it. Current approaches focus on helping people maintain mental function, manage behavioral symptoms, and slow or delay the symptoms of disease.
What drugs are currently available to treat Alzheimer's?
Several medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat symptoms of Alzheimer's. Donepezil (Aricept®), rivastigmine (Exelon®), and galantamine (Razadyne®) are used to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer's (donepezil can be used for severe Alzheimer's as well). Memantine (Namenda®), is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's.
These drugs work by regulating neurotransmitters, the brain chemicals that transmit messages between neurons. They may help maintain thinking, memory, and communication skills and help with certain behavioral problems. However, these drugs don’t change the underlying disease process. They are effective for some but not all people and may help only for a limited time.
No published study directly compares the four approved drugs. Because they work in a similar way, it is not expected that switching from one of these drugs to another will produce significantly different results. However, a patient may respond better to one drug than another.
Are there treatments available for managing behavioral symptoms?
Common behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer’s include sleeplessness, wandering, agitation, anxiety, and depression. Scientists are learning why these symptoms occur and are studying new treatments—drug and nondrug—to manage them. Research has shown that treating behavioral symptoms can make people with Alzheimer’s more comfortable and makes things easier for caregivers.
What potential new treatments are being researched?
Alzheimer’s disease research has developed to a point where scientists can look beyond treating symptoms to think about addressing underlying disease processes. In ongoing clinical trials, scientists are developing and testing several possible interventions, including immunization therapy, drug therapies, cognitive training, physical activity, and treatments used for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
What are clinical trials?
People who want to help scientists test possible treatments may be able to take part in clinical trials, which are research studies that test the safety, side effects, and effectiveness of a medication or other intervention in humans. Study volunteers help scientists learn about the brain in healthy aging and in Alzheimer’s disease. Results of clinical trials are used to improve prevention and treatment approaches.
Reference: National Institute on Aging
Last Updated: May 4, 2017
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