For many people, ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn.
Medication also may improve physical coordination. Sometimes several different medications or dosages must be tried before finding the right one that works for a particular person.
Anyone taking medications must be monitored closely and carefully by their prescribing doctor.
Key Points about ADHD Medications
- Medications for ADHD help many children focus and be more successful at school, home, and play. Avoiding negative experiences now may actually help prevent addictions and other emotional problems later.
- About 80 percent of children who need medication for ADHD still need it as teenagers.
- Medications do not cure ADHD.
The most common type of medication used for treating ADHD is called a “stimulant.” Although it may seem unusual to treat ADHD with a medication that is considered a stimulant, it works because it increases the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine, which play essential roles in thinking and attention.
Under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe. However, there are risks and side effects, especially when misused or taken in excess of the prescribed dose.For example, stimulants can raise blood pressure and heart rate and increase anxiety. Therefore, a person with other health problems, including high blood pressure, seizures, heart disease, glaucoma, liver or kidney disease, or an anxiety disorder should tell their doctor before taking a stimulant.
Talk with a doctor if you see any of these side effects while taking stimulants:
- decreased appetite
- sleep problems
- tics (sudden, repetitive movements or sounds);
- personality changes
- increased anxiety and irritability
Stimulant Medications for ADHD
A list of medications and the approved age for use follows.
|Trade Name||Generic Name||Approved Age|
|Adderall||amphetamine||3 and older|
|Adderall XR||amphetamine (extended release)||6 and older|
|Concerta||methylphenidate (long acting)||6 and older|
|Daytrana||methylphenidate patch||6 and older|
|Desoxyn||methamphetamine hydrochloride||6 and older|
|Dexedrine||dextroamphetamine||3 and older|
|Dextrostat||dextroamphetamine||3 and older|
|Focalin||dexmethylphenidate||6 and older|
|Focalin XR||dexmethylphenidate (extended release)||6 and older|
|Metadate ER||methylphenidate (extended release)||6 and older|
|Metadate CD||methylphenidate (extended release)||6 and older|
|Methylin||methylphenidate (oral solution and chewable tablets)||6 and older|
|Ritalin||methylphenidate||6 and older|
|Ritalin SR||methylphenidate (extended release)||6 and older|
|Ritalin LA||methylphenidate (long acting)||6 and older|
|Strattera||atomoxetine||6 and older|
|Vyvanse||lisdexamfetamine dimesylate||6 and older|
*Not all ADHD medications are approved for use in adults.
NOTE: "extended release" means the medication is released gradually so that a controlled amount enters the body over a period of time. "Long acting" means the medication stays in the body for a long time.
Side Effects of Stimulant Medications
The most commonly reported side effects are decreased appetite, sleep problems, anxiety, and irritability. Some children also report mild stomach aches or headaches. Most side effects are minor and disappear over time or if the dosage level is lowered.
- Decreased appetite. Be sure your child eats healthy meals. If this side effect does not go away, talk to your child's doctor. Also talk to the doctor if you have concerns about your child's growth or weight gain while he or she is taking this medication.
- Sleep problems. If a child cannot fall asleep, the doctor may prescribe a lower dose of the medication or a shorter-acting form. The doctor might also suggest giving the medication earlier in the day, or stopping the afternoon or evening dose. Adding a prescription for a low dose of an antidepressant or a blood pressure medication called clonidine sometimes helps with sleep problems. A consistent sleep routine that includes relaxing elements like warm milk, soft music, or quiet activities in dim light, may also help.
- Less common side effects. A few children develop sudden, repetitive movements or sounds called tics. These tics may or may not be noticeable. Changing the medication dosage may make tics go away. Some children also may have a personality change, such as appearing "flat" or without emotion. Talk with your child's doctor if you see any of these side effects.
A few other ADHD medications are non-stimulants. These medications take longer to start working than stimulants, but can also improve focus, attention, and impulsivity in a person with ADHD. Doctors may prescribe a non-stimulant: when a person has bothersome side effects from stimulants; when a stimulant was not effective; or in combination with a stimulant to increase effectiveness.
Although not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for the treatment of ADHD, some antidepressants are sometimes used alone or in combination with a stimulant to treat ADHD. Antidepressants may help all of the symptoms of ADHD and can be prescribed if a patient has bothersome side effects from stimulants. Antidepressants can be helpful in combination with stimulants if a patient also has another condition, such as an anxiety disorder, depression, or another mood disorder.
Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication, dose, or medication combination.
Reference: National Institute of Mental Health
Last updated May 2017
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